Reported speech 3 eso
Indirect speech in english
Reported Speech: explanation, examples and exercisesIndex of the articleThe Reported Speech of English (also called ‘Indirect speech’ or, more for these parts, ‘Indirect style of English’) is perhaps the aspect of English grammar that causes more headaches, one of the most forgotten and, look what a coincidence, one of the most importantBecause, for example, it is essential to master it to obtain qualifications such as the ‘First certificate’ or ‘CAE’ so demanded today by companies of all kinds. Not to mention that it is widely used in written English, both in formal and informal language, both in the best works of Shakespeare and in the Whatsapp messages of your university group…
Reasons there are many to learn ‘Reported Speech’ (well, actually the direct and indirect style of English). Or well, maybe it’s better to say “remember it”. Well, we have all seen these notions of English grammar at school or high school, but they tend to be forgotten over time (as well as others, such as the well-known English connectors), so it is a good idea to review them from time to time! That is the reason for this article: to remind you what the ‘Reported Speech’ is; how the indirect style of English is formulated; and what aspects change when you go from direct speech to indirect speech; as well as many examples and exercises to complement it. We hope you find it helpful Before we get to Reported Speech: what is direct speech, let’s start at the beginning (textbook tautology); before we dive into Reported Speech, let’s look at its opposite: Direct Speech. An indivisible part of the indirect style that has brought you here today.What is the direct style in English? The one we use to report exactly what the other person has said. To do this, word for word, we put what was said in quotation marks. So: What is the indirect style of English then? The explanation of the ‘Reported Speech’ is nothing but the opposite of the direct style that we explained in the previous point. That is to say:
Anecdotes with reported speech
3.2 The unit of analysis Following Halliday (1985), in the present study the clause is used as the unit of analysis8. The structures studied are canonically made up of a reporting clause (or introductory expression) and a reported clause, which is the structure that includes the quoted content, either in direct or indirect style. 3.3 Procedures From each of the transcripts, the interviewee’s clauses reporting a verbal utterance in direct or indirect style were selected. In addition to unintelligible or incompletely meaningful utterances, the cases detailed from example 2 to 5 were excluded from the analysis: i) when the verbs of communication function as discourse markers, as in (2)9; ii) when the verbs have a realizative value (in the present tense, in the first person and when they do not involve the description of an action but its realization; cf. Maldonado, 1991: 28), as in (3); iii) when the speaker narrates a speech event without specifying the message conveyed, as in (4); and iv) when a verb of saying is followed by a predicative and its meaning is that of calling or nicknaming (example 5). (2) the rest of my family is/ so to speak/ disintegrated within what is the capital and the other cities of/ of Venezuela (c31hb.05) (3) I can say that [
Direct and indirect discourse
3.2. DIRECT STYLE AND REPORT VERBS Another aspect that should be emphasized when defining DE and IE has to do with the frequency of use of DE in orality, since in all the research described above, the tendency of speakers to use direct quotations much more than indirect quotations in their conversations is observed, especially in the case of narrative sequences. Therefore, as Benavent Payá 2003 explains, the marked structure would undoubtedly be the IE. Likewise, all the verbs quoted in the GDLE are very unproductive in orality, since the verb used par excellence is decir, as is also corroborated in the studies described above. The animacy of the quoted subject is also an important aspect in the framework of oral narratives (cf. Cameron 1998). Usually, these are animate human entities, as in (13). Cases like those in (14) are very rare.
Second, the quoted content may contain fragments that do not actually quote reported words, as in (22), or it may consist entirely of these structures that seem to be used for the purpose of filling information gaps during the communicative exchange (23). Both cases constitute further evidence in favor of the non-literal nature of direct quotations in orality:
Direct and indirect style exercises pdf
When someone conveys in his own words what another person says, without modifying the sense or meaning of the story, we will say that he is expressing or speaking in indirect discourse. For example:
In summary, we can say that the two discourses, both direct and indirect discourse are just two different ways of reporting a statement of a person. Put another way in simple words, quoting a person using his or her words is called indirect speech.
In indirect speech, we often use a tense that is “further back” in the past (e.g., worked) than the tense originally used (e.g., work). This form of expression is called “backward”. We may also need to change other words that were used.